Enlarged Prostate Symptoms

Enlarged Prostate Symptoms. Increasing the size of the prostate gland narrows the upper portion of the urethra , which passes through the prostate gland . This phenomenon is referred to in the jargon as subvesical obstruction. By narrowing the urethra, Enlarged Prostate Symptoms causes that are almost all related to urination. They can be subdivided into two symptom complexes (obstructive and irritative micturition complaints). In addition, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may interfere with sexual function.

Enlarged Prostate Symptoms

The typical Enlarged Prostate Symptoms are problems with urination. It comes either to urinary memory disorders or urinary bladder emptying disorder.

Enlarged Prostate Symptoms

Nocturnal and frequent urination, sudden urinary urgency and incontinence are typical for a urinary memory disorder.

In a bladder emptying disorder sufferers have difficulty starting to urinate. There is little urine and the patients feel that there is always some urine left. In addition, urination lasts longer and sometimes urine drips.

If residual urinekeepsremaining in the bladder, the risk of cystitis or bladder stones is increased because bacteria and small urinary stones remain in the bladder, multiply or enlarge, and are not completely flushed out. The urinary retention can also lead to over-dilation of the bladder or go up into the ureters andcause kidney damage.

In addition, small blood vessels of the prostate or bladder can tear and cause bleeding. Sometimes the affected person can not even leave the water and has to be treated immediately. Then the doctor empties the urinary bladder by removing the urine with a catheter.

Benign enlargement of the prostate sometimes leads to erectile problems and reduced ejaculation.

Back pain is not directly related to a benign prostate enlargement.

The most common Enlarged Prostate Symptoms and complications at a glance:

Enlarged Prostate Symptoms

  • Nocturnal and frequent urination
  • Urinary urgency, start inhibition
  • Weak urinary stream
  • Urination takes a long time
  • Urine drips, incontinence
  • residual urine

Enlarged Prostate Symptoms Complications

  • urinary retention
  • bladder infection
  • bladder stones
  • bleeding
  • kidney damage

The Enlarged Prostate Symptoms that are typical of prostatic hypertrophy may also have other causes, such as bladder irritation or inflammation of the urinary tract. It is therefore important to see a doctor who can make the right diagnosis and offer treatment options.

Diagnostics: The IPSS questionnaire and the most important examinations

First, the doctor asks you for your complaints. The German Society for Urology recommends the use of the internationally standardized IPSS questionnaire in anamnestic interview. It’s not just about what symptoms you have, but also about the frequency of your symptoms.

You can answer the questionnaire in advance to prepare for the doctor’s visit.

The most important investigations for the diagnosis:

  • Clinical examination: The doctor scans the prostate and initiates urine and blood tests.
  • Urine examination: The urine values ​​provide information about signs of inflammation, blood additions and the sugar and protein content.
  • Blood test: The most important blood test is the measurement of PSA, the prostate-specific antigen. The PSA levels in the blood also play an important role in the early detection of malignant prostate changes.
  • Ultrasound scan: The ultrasound scan allows the clinician to determine the size and shape of the prostate and detect residual urine, bladder changes, bladder stones, and any kidney changes.
  • Urinary stream measurement: The urologist uses a device mounted under the patient urinal urine collection funnel to measure the urine flow.

Characteristic Enlarged Prostate Symptoms

Characteristic Enlarged Prostate Symptoms include difficulty in starting to urinate, nocturnal and frequent urination, and a strong urge to urinate.

When enlarging the prostate , there are often disorders in bladder emptying (“let water”) and in the bladder (“keep water”).

Bladder Discharge Disruption : Affected men have difficulty starting urination. The urine stream can become weaker. Urination takes longer than usual. It can also happen that after urinating drops urine out of the urethra. Sometimes several attempts are needed to completely empty the bladder. Often, even after urination, the feeling remains that there is still a small amount of urine in the bladder (residual urgency).

Urinary memory disorders : Affected persons often need to go to the toilet, sometimes at short intervals and often at night. Sudden strong urination with unwanted urine leakage (urge incontinence) is often particularly distressing for those affected.

Remains of residual urine in the bladder, it can easily colonize germs, which increases the risk of urinary tract infections or bladder stones. About one third of the affected men additionally suffer from erection problems, even more with difficulties in ejaculation; for most, there is a significant decrease in ejaculate volume.

If there is an acute urinary retention , the affected person can no longer empty the bladder, although it is full and he feels a strong urinary urgency. The overstretched bladder can cause severe pain. In this case, the physician must derive the urine as an immediate measure using a thin plastic tube (catheter).

In many patients, however, there is no acute urinary retention, but the overstretching of the bladder and the residual urine formation occurs creeping and unnoticed ( chronic urinary retention ). The result is a so-called urine dripping or an overflow incontinence. The urinary tract can continue into the ureters and up into the kidneys and permanently damage them.


* When urinating, do you feel that you have not completely emptied your bladder and therefore need to press harder than before?

* Has the urine stream become weaker, breaks off again and ends up in a longer refilling?

* Do you have to go to the toilet several times a day for urinary urgency?

If you are over 50 years of age, these Enlarged Prostate Symptoms have occurred at this stage of your life and are only slowly increasing, they are probably due to an enlarged prostate.

Other signs that may indicate both benign prostate enlargement and other urinary or genital disorders:

  • Frequently loosening only small amounts of urine
  • Thereafter in a short time again urination
  • Sudden strong urination
  • Involuntary loss of urine, wetting ( urge incontinence )
  • Burning or other sensations when watering
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Multiple bladder infections
  • Burning or pain during intercourse
  • Ejaculation or erectile dysfunction and decreased sexual desire (libido)

To find out if there is a benign enlargement of the prostate gland or any other disease behind such complaints, a few simple examinations are usually sufficient. The doctor can palpate your prostate after gently inserting your finger into your bowel (rectal exam). 

Also, certain laboratory tests of blood and urine or an ultrasound examination of the bladder and prostate can help with the diagnostic assessment. Occasionally, special urologist examinations are necessary, such as uroflowmetry,in which the patient simply urinates in the funnel of a measuring apparatus.

Whether and how to treat depends, among other things, on the amount of residual urine remaining in the bladder after urination. 20 to 30% of all patients suffering from water-solving problems due to a benign prostate enlargement experience sustained improvement without treatment.

In others, the urinary drainage disorder slowly increases with the growing prostate gland. In this case, regular monitoring by the urologist is important in order to prevent complications such as urinary retention and renal dysfunction through timely therapeutic intervention. The severity of the Enlarged Prostate Symptoms does not allow any conclusions as to the severity of the urinary obstruction and vice versa.

When to the doctor If you have Enlarged Prostate Symptoms?

Rarely, pronounced prostate enlargement can lead to acute urinary retention. The affected person has a painfully bulging bladder and feels a strong urge to urinate; but he can not let water. Then it is necessary to immediately call a doctor, who provides relief with the help of a urine catheter. Otherwise, the urine jam, if not corrected in time, could lead to kidney infections and damage.

When the prostate is significantly enlarged, it presses on the bladder and urethra. This can lead to various complaints:

  • The urge to urinate is more frequent and stronger than before, especially at night.
  • It takes a while for the urine to come.
  • The urinary stream is weaker and the urination takes longer than before.
  • After urinating, urine drips and the bladder does not feel properly empty.

The medical term for these complaints is “Benign Prostate Syndrome” (BPS). Often also referred to as “Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia” (BPH). This refers to the enlargement (hyperplasia) of the prostate gland. The term “benign” means benign; it is meant that this is not prostate cancer.

Between the size of the prostate and the severity of the Enlarged Prostate Symptoms is not always a direct connection: Some men with greatly enlarged prostate have few complaints, others already prepares a slightly enlarged prostate problems.

Enlarged Prostate Symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia

The prostate is part of the male urogenital tract (urinary and genital apparatus). It sits below the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra to the pelvic floor. The prostate secretes a secretion during ejaculation, which makes the sperm more mobile. Furthermore, it keeps the urine away from the vas deferens. During puberty it grows to its normal size and then weighs about 15 to 20 grams .

Benign prostatic hyperplasia develops when the cells of the prostate proliferate excessively, enlarging the glandular tissue surrounding the urethra. It often comes to a compression and thus drainage obstruction of the urethra. As a result, the pressure on the urethra becomes larger and larger, which leads to the typical problems with urination(micturition problems ).

The first Enlarged Prostate Symptoms occur mostly in the 5th decade of life. The drainage obstruction of the urethra thickens the muscles of the urinary bladder, which can cause additional impairments. The following Enlarged Prostate Symptoms are characteristic of a prostate enlargement:

  • attenuated urinary stream
  • longer duration of bladder emptying
  • delayed start of emptying (“start-up weakness”)
  • dribbling
  • more frequent urination (Pollakisurie)
  • Urinary urgency with increased pressure sensation
  • uncontrolled urine output (incontinence)
  • nocturnal urination (nocturia)

If the benign prostatic hyperplasia is not treated, it may come later in further complaints:

  • Residual urine formation (retention of urine in the bladder)
  • increased susceptibility to urinary tract infections or bladder stones
  • Damage to the kidneys to kidney failure
  • complete urinary barrier

The extent of the discomfort does not depend directly on the size of the prostate. Thus, a very small prostate can cause pronounced Enlarged Prostate Symptoms and vice versa.

Five Enlarged Prostate Symptoms for a sick prostate

Problems with the prostate (prostate gland) are usually not a malignant change, but an examination is definitely advisable if men have certain Enlarged Prostate Symptoms . Only then can benign ulcers or prostate cancer be detected early and unpleasant Enlarged Prostate Symptoms can be prevented. We call typical warning signs for a sick prostate.

Physicians distinguish between benign and malignant prostate diseases: The benign include inflammation (prostatitis) and prostate enlargement, the malignant diseases include prostate cancer.

The prostate belongs to the sex organs of the man. It lies below the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra. The prostate weighs about 20 grams and is chestnut-sized – about three inches long and four inches wide. The gland produces a secretion that is released into the urethra during ejaculation and mixes with the sperm. It makes up about 30 percent of seminal fluid and ensures better sperm motility.

Symptom 1: Discomfort when urinating

The prostate surrounds the urethra. The gland enlarges, pushes it on the tube and the man gets problems urinating. Often, the bladder can not empty properly. This affects almost every second man over 50 years.Frequent urinary urgency and the so-called “Nachtröpfeln” are typical side effects.

A less vigorous urinary stream as well as nocturnal urgency are indications for an enlarged prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia).

If men notice these signs, they should go to a urologist. With the right therapy, the Enlarged Prostate Symptoms  improve significantly and even bladder stones or kidney damage can be prevented. A prostate enlargement is benign – but especially disturbing are the side effects.

Nevertheless, it is important to clarify the causes of the prostate problems, because it can also be behind other diseases. These include, for example, urinary tract infections or tumors.

Symptom 2: Blood in urine or semen

Other warning signs are blood in the urine or blood in the semen. Even then, in any case, a doctor (urologist) should be visited, who makes a diagnosis. It may be a harmless cause, but it may also be an indication of a malignant prostate carcinoma. According to the German Cancer Society, every sixth man over 50 suffers from prostate cancer.

In the initial stage, those affected do not notice anything. Complaints only occur when the tumor has become so large that it spreads to the urethra, or when daughter tumors have formed outside the prostate. In addition to blood in the urine and seminal fluid, Enlarged Prostate Symptoms include ejaculation pain and pain in the prostate. Patients also report pain in the lower back, in the hip and in the pelvis.

Symptom 3: Incontinence: When the bladder weakens

Bladder weakness and involuntary urine loss can have different causes. This can be a separate disorder, but it can also be a symptom of another condition, such as an enlarged prostate or prostate cancer. However, incontinence is more rarely a sign of a tumor. Bladder weakness is much more likely to be a concomitant of cancer treatment.

Symptom 4 – Potency disorder: the prostate may be behind it

If it comes to impotence or the erection is less pronounced, the prostate can also be at fault. In most cases, the cause is prostate enlargement, but in some cases prostate cancer is the trigger.

Painful ejaculation and less seminal fluid and erectile dysfunction are often the result. This is because the prostate swells in its interior as well. This narrows the sperm ducts and there is less sperm during orgasm. Pain occurs when the prostate is additionally inflamed. Then it hurts when secretions are ejected.

Symptom 5: Increased PSA: evidence of prostate cancer?

The doctor can use a blood test to determine your PSA value. The so-called prostate-specific antigen is a protein that is formed by the prostate. If the PSA level is increased, this can be an indication of a benign or malignant change in the prostate, but also point to an inflammation. If necessary, further investigations will then be initiated.

What Enlarged Prostate Symptoms are typical of prostate cancer?

At the beginning, prostate cancer causes no discomfort.Enlarged Prostate Symptoms only appear when the primary tumor has already exceeded a certain size or metastases have formed. According to the German Cancer Aid, men should no longer delay the doctor’s visit with the following five warning signs: pain in the prostate, impaired bladder emptying, problems with defecation, blood in the urine, and “sciatica” pain.

Do not be shy of prostate screening

But not only the typical warning signs such as urinary problems, blood in the urine, blood in the semen, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, a urologist should be asked for advice.

For early detection of changes, early detection is important. The costs of cancer screening are taken over from the age of 45 by the statutory health insurance. The examination is as follows: After the first interview follows the physical examination.

The doctor scans the abdomen, groin, penis and testicles to determine possible changes.For rectal palpation, the urologist carefully inserts his index finger into the rectum to  feel the  prostate . After about 30 seconds, however, the procedure perceived by many men as unpleasant procedure is over.

Enlarged Prostate Symptoms
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